Rudolf hess

Rudolf Hess Navigationsmenü

Rudolf Walter Richard Heß war ein deutscher Politiker. Heß war ab Reichsminister ohne Geschäftsbereich und ab Mitglied des Ministerrates für die Reichsverteidigung. Rudolf Walter Richard Heß [hɛs] (* April in Alexandria, Ägypten; † August in Berlin-Wilhelmstadt) war ein deutscher Politiker (NSDAP). Rudolf Hess oder Rudolf Heß ist der Name folgender Personen: Rudolf Hess (​General) (–), österreichischer Feldmarschalleutnant; Rudolf Hess. April: Rudolf Heß wird als Sohn eines deutschen Kaufmanns und dessen Frau in Alexandria (Ägypten) geboren. Für die Gymnasialausbildung besucht er. Rudolf Walter Richard Heß [fannonser.se a{text-decoration:none}hɛs] war ein deutscher Politiker. Heß war ab Reichsminister ohne.

rudolf hess

Der „Stellvertreter des Führers“ Rudolf Heß nahm sich im Gefängnis das Leben. Er war der letzte inhaftierte Hauptkriegsverbrecher, der in den Nürnberger. Rudolf Heß ist nicht nur wegen seiner Nähe zu Hitler historisch bemerkenswert. Vielmehr bietet seine Biographie auch die Gelegenheit, eine. Rudolf Heß war Wegbereiter und fanatischster Anhänger Adolf Hitlers. ernannte der ihn zum "Stellvertreter des Führers" in der NSDAP. Bei den.

Que recherchez-vous sur Rudolf Hess? En Enfer! Cet homme n'est qu'un criminel Cet homme n'est qu'un criminel et lui rendre hommage est insultant pour toutes ces victimes.

Commentez - il y a 2 ans. Commentaires Vous avez des questions sur Rudolf Hess? Des remarques? Votre publication Autres nazi hommes allemand.

Adolf Hitler. Erwin Rommel. Josef Mengele. Adolf Eichmann. Reinhold Hanning. Oskar Gröning. Hess began around this time to complain of amnesia.

This symptom and some of his increasingly erratic behaviour may have in part been a ruse, because if he were declared mentally ill, he could be repatriated under the terms of the Geneva Conventions.

Hess was moved to Maindiff Court Hospital on 26 June , where he remained for the next three years. The facility was chosen for its added security and the need for fewer guards.

Hess was allowed walks on the grounds and car trips into the surrounding countryside. He had access to newspapers and other reading materials; he wrote letters and journals.

His mental health remained under the care of Dr Rees. Hess continued to complain on and off of memory loss and made a second suicide attempt on 4 February , when he stabbed himself with a bread knife.

The wound was not serious, requiring two stitches. Despondent that Germany was losing the war, he took no food for the next week, only resuming eating when he was threatened with being force-fed.

Germany surrendered unconditionally on 8 May Hess, facing charges as a war criminal, was ordered to appear before the International Military Tribunal and was transported to Nuremberg on 10 October The Allies of World War II held a series of military tribunals and trials, beginning with a trial of the major war criminals from November to October Hess was tried with this first group of 23 defendants, all of whom were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity , in violation of international laws governing warfare.

On his arrival in Nuremberg, Hess was reluctant to give up some of his possessions, including samples of food he said had been poisoned by the British; he proposed to use these for his defence during the trial.

The commandant of the facility, Colonel Burton C. Andrus of the United States Army, advised him that he would be allowed no special treatment; the samples were sealed and confiscated.

As one defendant, Robert Ley , had managed to hang himself in his cell on 24 October, the remaining prisoners were monitored around the clock.

Almost immediately after his arrival, Hess began exhibiting amnesia, which may have been feigned in the hope of avoiding the death sentence.

The chief psychiatrist at Nuremberg, Douglas Kelley of the US Military, gave the opinion that the defendant suffered from "a true psychoneurosis, primarily of the hysterical type, engrafted on a basic paranoid and schizoid personality, with amnesia, partly genuine and partly feigned", but found him fit to stand trial.

The prosecution's case against Hess was presented by Mervyn Griffith-Jones beginning on 7 February By quoting from Hess's speeches, he attempted to demonstrate that Hess had been aware of and agreed with Hitler's plans to conduct a war of aggression in violation of international law.

He declared that as Hess had signed important governmental decrees, including the decree requiring mandatory military service, the Nuremberg racial laws, and a decree incorporating the conquered Polish territories into the Reich, he must share responsibility for the acts of the regime.

He pointed out that the timing of Hess's trip to Scotland, only six weeks before the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, could only be viewed as an attempt by Hess to keep the British out of the war.

Hess resumed showing symptoms of amnesia at the end of February, partway through the prosecution's case. He noted that while Hess accepted responsibility for the many decrees he had signed, he said these matters were part of the internal workings of a sovereign state and thus outside the purview of a war crimes trial.

When Griffith-Jones presented questions about the organisation's spying in several countries, Bohle testified that any warlike activities such as espionage had been done without his permission or knowledge.

Seidl presented a summation of the defence's case on 25 July, in which he attempted to refute the charge of conspiracy by pointing out that Hitler alone had made all the important decisions.

He noted that Hess could not be held responsible for any events that took place after he left Germany in May Meanwhile, Hess mentally detached himself from what was happening, declining visits from his family and refusing to read the newspapers.

The court deliberated for nearly two months before passing judgement on 30 September, with the defendants being individually sentenced on 1 October.

Hess was found guilty on two counts: crimes against peace planning and preparing a war of aggression , and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes.

He was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He was given a life sentence, one of seven Nazis to receive prison sentences at the trial.

These seven were transported by aircraft to the Allied military prison at Spandau in Berlin on 18 July Spandau was placed under the control of the Allied Control Council , the governing body in charge of the military occupation of Germany, which consisted of representatives from Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

Each country supplied prison guards for a month at a time on a rotating basis. After the inmates were given medical examinations—Hess refused his body search, and had to be held down [] —they were provided with prison garb and assigned the numbers by which they were addressed throughout their stay.

Hess was Number 7. The prison had a small library and inmates were allowed to file special requests for additional reading material.

Writing materials were limited; each inmate was allowed four pieces of paper per month for letters.

They were not allowed to speak to one another without permission and were expected to work in the facility, helping with cleaning and gardening chores.

Some of the rules became more relaxed as time went on. Visitors were allowed to come for half an hour per month, but Hess forbade his family to visit until December , when he was a patient at the British Military Hospital in West Berlin for a perforated ulcer.

By this time, Wolf Rüdiger Hess was 32 years old and Ilse 69; they had not seen Hess since his departure from Germany in After this illness, he allowed his family to visit regularly.

His daughter-in-law Andrea, who often brought photos and films of his grandchildren, became a particularly welcome visitor. He cried out in the night, claiming he had stomach pains.

He continued to suspect that his food was being poisoned and complained of amnesia. Other than his stays in hospital, Hess spent the rest of his life in Spandau Prison.

A lift was installed so he could easily reach the garden, and he was provided with a medical orderly from onward.

Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl launched numerous appeals for his release, beginning as early as These were denied, mainly because the Soviets repeatedly vetoed the proposal.

Spandau was located in West Berlin, and its existence gave the Soviets a foothold in that sector of the city.

Additionally, Soviet officials believed Hess must have known in that an attack on their country was imminent. By , , people had signed the petition.

In September , medical tests showed that Hess was suffering from potentially fatal prostate cancer. Hess's appeal to neo-Nazi groups in West Germany further increased the Soviet unwillingness to consider his release.

Hess continued to be an unapologetic National Socialist and anti-Semite; this was usually ignored by those championing his release, who portrayed him as a harmless old man.

On 25 June , a Soviet guard caught Charles Gabel, the chaplain at Spandau, attempting to smuggle out a statement by Hess, causing Gabel to be fired.

Hess had originally written the document as his opening address at the Nuremberg trial in , which he had been unable to deliver in full after the judges cut him short.

Hess tried to mail a copy of the statement to Sir Oswald Mosley in October , but the letter was intercepted by his American guards.

He said in the statement that he had decided to make his flight to Scotland without informing Hitler, with the aim of informing Britain of the Soviet danger to "European civilization" and the entire world.

He believed his warning would cause Britain to end its war with Germany and join in the fight against the Soviet Union.

Hess died on 17 August , aged 93, in a summer house that had been set up in the prison garden as a reading room. He took an extension cord from one of the lamps, strung it over a window latch, and hanged himself.

A short note to his family was found in his pocket, thanking them for all that they had done. The Four Powers released a statement on 17 September ruling the death a suicide.

He was initially buried at a secret location to avoid media attention or demonstrations by Nazi sympathisers, but his body was re-interred in a family plot at Wunsiedel on 17 March ; his wife was buried beside him in Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl felt that he was too old and frail to have managed to kill himself.

Wolf Rüdiger Hess repeatedly claimed that his father had been murdered by the British Secret Intelligence Service to prevent him from revealing information about British misconduct during the war.

Abdallah Melaouhi served as Hess's medical orderly from to ; he was dismissed from his position at his local district parliament's Immigration and Integration Advisory Council after he wrote a self-published book on a similar theme.

According to an investigation by the British government in , the available evidence did not back up the claim that Hess was murdered, and Solicitor General Sir Nicholas Lyell saw no grounds for further investigation.

Historian Peter Padfield wrote that the suicide note found on the body appeared to have been written when Hess was hospitalised in Wunsiedel became a destination for pilgrimages and neo-Nazi demonstrations every August on the date of Hess's death.

To put a stop to neo-Nazi pilgrimages, the parish council decided not to allow an extension on the grave site's lease when it expired in The remains were cremated and the ashes scattered at sea by family members.

The gravestone, which bore the epitaph "Ich hab's gewagt" "I have dared" , was destroyed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 June This article is about the Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler.

For the commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, see Rudolf Höss. For the Californian artist, see Rudolf Hess artist.

Ilse Pröhl m. Racial ideology. Final Solution. Nazism outside of Germany. Related topics. Further information: Nuremberg Trials.

Bird, Eugene The Loneliest Man in the World. Chesler, Caren 1 October Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 4 September Childers, Thomas Boston; Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin.

Dowling, Siobhan 21 July The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin Group.

The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Group. The Third Reich at War. Goda, Norman Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gunther, John Inside Europe.

Handwerk, Brian 10 May Retrieved 28 August Hess, Wolf Rüdiger []. My Father Rudolf Hess. London: W. Herwig, Holger Greenwald, John; Freeman, Clive 31 August Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 27 February Jacobsen, Hans-Adolf Chrisitan Leitz ed.

The Structure of Nazi Foreign Policy, — London: Blackwell. The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 January Is Tomorrow Hitler's?

Manvell, Roger ; Fraenkel, Heinrich Hess: A Biography. London: Granada. Milmo, Cahal 10 September The Independent.

Retrieved 10 September Nesbit, Roy Conyers; van Acker, Georges []. Stroud: History Press. Padfield, Peter Hess: The Fuhrer's Disciple.

Pick, Daniel Retrieved 21 June Rubinstein, William Brighton: Edward Everett Root. Sereny, Gitta []. New York: Vintage. Shirer, William L.

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Schmidt, Rainer F. Mai in German. Smith, Michael 27 December Telegraph Media Group Limited. Speer, Albert [].

Inside the Third Reich. New York: Avon. Speer, Albert Spandau: The Secret Diaries. New York: Macmillan. Staff 24 July Bild in German.

Axel Springer AG. Archived from the original on 23 January Staff 21 October Staff 5 June Staff 31 May The Scotsman. Staff 21 July BBC News.

Zwar, Desmond 16 June Talking to Rudolf Hess. Allen, Martin London: Harper Collins. Allen, Peter London: R. Boyes, Roger 7 June The Australian.

News Corp Australia. Retrieved 29 August Ten Days that Saved the West. London: Bantam. Douglas-Hamilton, James Edinburgh: Mainstream.

Haiger, Ernst Journal of Intelligence History. Hess, Rudolf; Hess, Ilse Prisoner of Peace. London: Britons. Hutton, Joseph Bernard Hess: The Man and His Mission.

Le Tissier, Tony Farewell to Spandau. Leasor, James Rudolf Hess: The Uninvited Envoy. Hess: Flight for the Führer. New York: Norton.

Thomas, W. Hugh The Murder of Rudolf Hess. Schwarzwäller, Wulf Rudolf Hess: the Last Nazi.

Rudolf Hess Weitere Beiträge aus Wissen

Er wies sie über Jahre hinweg here und nahm kein Intimverhältnis auf. Weizsäckers Pressesprecher und Redenschreiber Friedbert Pflüger hatte dies visit web page Hinweis auf die damals gerade aufgeflammte Bitburg-Kontroverse jedoch zunächst noch verhindert. Oktober und zwischen dem In: Geschichte und GegenwartS. Erich Raeder und Walther Funk waren ebenfalls zu lebenslänglichen Haftstrafen verurteilt worden. Harnack, MünchenS. Weil das die Gemeinde in schlechtes Licht rückte, wurde das Grab zum frühestmöglichen Zeitpunkt abgeräumt, die Gebeine des treulosen Vertrauten eingeäschert und auf hoher This web page verstreut.

Rudolf Hess Video

Koenigsberg Aka Rudolf Hess Speech At Koenigsberg (1934)

Rudolf Hess - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Vor allem aufgrund seines Englandfluges im Jahre und der propagandistischen Ausschlachtung dieses Ereignisses ranken sich um seine Person zahlreiche Mythen und Verschwörungstheorien, an die Neonazis bis heute anknüpfen. Er hatte zwar nie in der Stadt gelebt, aber seinem Wunsch wurde aus dem christlichen Beweggrund entsprochen, nicht über den Tod hinaus zu richten. Das Haus wurde mit Mikrofonen und Tonaufzeichnungsgeräten ausgestattet. Commons Wikiquote. Ebert, Johann B. Hohenheim-Verlag, Stuttgart , S. Durch den SA-Führerbefehl Nr. When Hess left briefly to make a phone read more the next see more, the hostages convinced the source to help them escape. He arrived at Maryhill Barracks the next morning, and after examining Hess's effects, he met alone with the prisoner. All had long been known to either Hess or Haushofer, who was also involved with the council. Rudolf hess Britons. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rudolf Hess. Hanns Kerrl Hermann Muhs acting. University of Munich. He was arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his role in the attempted coup, which later became known as the Beer Hall Putsch. Hess's office was nacher vorher responsible for drafting Hitler's Nuremberg Laws oflaws that had far-reaching implications for the Jews of Germany, banning marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans and depriving non- Aryans of their German citizenship. Hess tried to mail a copy of the statement to Sir Oswald Mosley in Octoberbut the letter was intercepted by his American guards. rudolf hess The Life of Maxwell Knight. Churchill befahl, ihn streng zu isolieren, aber angemessen zu behandeln. Juni von einem Balkon in Mytchett Place[27] am 4. So stürzte er sich am In dieser Funktion go here er die Aufgabe, Hitlers Standpunkt gegenüber staatlichen Institutionen und den Parteidienststellen zu vertreten. Diese Verwundung ist umstritten, da sie auf späteren Röntgenbildern fehlte und Anlass zu Doppelgängertheorien gab. Der Würzburger Historiker Rainer F. Karl Dönitz So radikal war Hitlers Nachfolger. Politik und Kriegführung — Article source im Nürnberger Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher. Er hat die Aufgabe, in parteiinternen personellen Konflikten zu vermitteln und den direkten Kontakt von Parteigenossen zu Hitler zu regeln. Trotz dieser Vertrauensposition war er in der Nacht vom Seit This web page war er source Reichsminister ohne Geschäftsbereich auch offiziell dessen Mitglied. Er habe in der zweiten Hälfte seiner jährigen Haft einen tiefgreifenden Wandel vollzogen und am Ende nichts mehr von einem Nationalsozialisten oder Antisemiten an sich click. Er ging in das von der Räterepublik regierte München und nahm im Februar please click for source der dortigen Universität ein Studium der Rudolf hessGeschichte und Jurisprudenz auf. Icon: Menü Menü.

Rudolf Hess Video

Rudolf Hess - Nazi Pacifist, Traitor or Madman? - WW2 Special Episode Rudolf Heß ist nicht nur wegen seiner Nähe zu Hitler historisch bemerkenswert. Vielmehr bietet seine Biographie auch die Gelegenheit, eine. Der „Stellvertreter des Führers“ Rudolf Heß nahm sich im Gefängnis das Leben. Er war der letzte inhaftierte Hauptkriegsverbrecher, der in den Nürnberger. Rudolf Heß, der letzte noch lebende Mann aus dem engsten Kreis um Adolf Hitler, starb am Nachmittag des August an den Folgen. Rudolf Heß, der ehemalige Stellvertreter von Adolf Hitler, erklärt in seinem Schlusswort, weshalb er das Gericht nicht anerkennt. Rudolf Heß war Wegbereiter und fanatischster Anhänger Adolf Hitlers. ernannte der ihn zum "Stellvertreter des Führers" in der NSDAP. Bei den. In: Die Presse Die von der Familie aufgeworfene Frage, ob ein Erdrosseln oder Erhängen vorlag, konnte das Nachgutachten nicht beantworten, link wichtige Halseingeweide wie Kehlkopf, Luftröhre, Schilddrüse und eine Halsschlagader infolge der britischen Erstobduktion https://fannonser.se/alte-filme-stream/john-magaro.php und es im Nachhinein nicht mehr zu unterscheiden war, ob https://fannonser.se/free-stream-filme/baby-boom.php vorliegende Gewalteinwirkung gegen den Hals durch Erhängen oder Erdrosseln hervorgerufen wurde. Er habe rudolf hess Gedächtnisschwund lediglich aus taktischen Gründen vorgetäuscht und sich diese Erklärung ursprünglich für einen späteren Zeitpunkt vorbehalten, wolle aber verhindern, dass deswegen das Verfahren gegen ihn eingestellt werde. In: Publikative. Mit dem SA-Führerbefehl Nr. Oktober und dem 1. Kinox der hobbit 2 November Die Gruft der Familie Hess in Wunsidel, wie sie bis aussah. Bald steckbrieflich gesucht, stellte er sich im April in München der Justiz.

Il passe l'hiver dans la Somme et en Artois autour d'Arras. Un mois plus tard, il est promu caporal.

Il s'agit en fait d' Adolf Hitler. Il retrouve Adolf Hitler en et tombe rapidement sous son emprise. Des quatre chefs d'accusation, seuls sont finalement retenus le complot et les crimes contre la paix.

Celle de rassemble plus de personnes. Proposez une citation. Rudolf Hess est en Enfer! Inscription Connexion.

Il n'existe aucune tombe de Rudolf Hess. Source : fr. Citations Nous n'avons pas de citations de Rudolf Hess pour le moment Naissance Date de naissance : 26 avril Lieu de naissance : Signe astrologique du zodiaque : -- Signe astrologique chinois : On 14 October, he was assigned to Jagdstaffel 35b , a Bavarian fighter squadron equipped with Fokker D.

VII biplanes. He saw no action with Jagdstaffel 35b, as the war ended on 11 November , before he had the opportunity.

Hess was discharged from the armed forces in December The family fortunes had taken a serious downturn, as their business interests in Egypt had been expropriated by the British.

In , Hess enrolled in the University of Munich , where he studied history and economics. His geopolitics professor was Karl Haushofer , a former general in the German Army who was a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum "living space" , which Haushofer cited to justify the proposal that Germany should forcefully conquer additional territory in Eastern Europe.

Ilse Pröhl , a fellow student at the university, met Hess in April when they by chance rented rooms in the same boarding house.

They married on 20 December and their only child, Wolf Rüdiger Hess , was born ten years later, on 18 November After hearing the Nazi Party leader Hitler speak for the first time in at a Munich rally, Hess became completely devoted to him.

They held a shared belief in the stab-in-the-back myth , the notion that Germany's loss in World War I was caused by a conspiracy of Jews and Bolsheviks rather than a military defeat.

On 4 November he was injured while protecting Hitler when a bomb planted by a Marxist group exploded at the Hofbräuhaus during a party event.

Hess joined the Sturmabteilung SA by and helped organise and recruit its early membership. Meanwhile, problems continued with the economy; hyperinflation caused many personal fortunes to be rendered worthless.

When the German government failed to meet its reparations payments and French troops marched in to occupy the industrial areas along the Ruhr in January , widespread civil unrest was the result.

Brandishing a pistol, Hitler interrupted Kahr's speech and announced that the national revolution had begun, declaring the formation of a new government with World War I General Erich Ludendorff.

Gunfire broke out between the Nazis and the police; sixteen marchers and four police officers were killed. Hitler was arrested on 11 November.

When Hess left briefly to make a phone call the next day, the hostages convinced the driver to help them escape. Hess, stranded, called Ilse Pröhl, who brought him a bicycle so he could return to Munich.

He went to stay with the Haushofers and then fled to Austria, but they convinced him to return. He was arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his role in the attempted coup, which later became known as the Beer Hall Putsch.

Hitler was sentenced to five years imprisonment, and the Nazi Party and SA were both outlawed. Edited by publisher Max Amann , Hess and others, the work was published in two parts in and It was later released in a single volume, which became a best-seller after Hitler was released on parole on 20 December and Hess ten days later.

Hitler named Hess his private secretary in April at a salary of Reichsmarks per month, and named him as personal adjutant on 20 July Retaining his interest in flying after the end of his active military career, Hess obtained his private pilot's licence on 4 April He acquired two more Messerschmitt aircraft in the early s, logging many flying hours and becoming proficient in the operation of light single-engine aircraft.

On 30 January , Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor , his first step in gaining dictatorial control of Germany. Hess also spoke over the radio and at rallies around the country, so frequently that the speeches were collected into book form in He was authorised to increase the sentences of anyone he felt got off too lightly in these cases, and was also empowered to take "merciless action" if he saw fit to do so.

This often entailed sending the person to a concentration camp or simply ordering the person killed.

The purpose of the council was to protect the Nazi Party from criticism that it was attempting to extend the process of Gleichschaltung to international ethnic German communities.

Despite Hess's claims to the contrary, the council members were primarily loyal to Germany rather than their current nations.

The eight council members, only one of which was a member of the Nazi Party, were responsible only to Hess. All had long been known to either Hess or Haushofer, who was also involved with the council.

Members publicly claimed to be uninvolved in the council, which Hess used as proof that the Nazi Party was not trying in interfere in the domestic affairs of other nations.

The Nazi regime began to persecute Jews soon after the seizure of power. Hess's office was partly responsible for drafting Hitler's Nuremberg Laws of , laws that had far-reaching implications for the Jews of Germany, banning marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans and depriving non- Aryans of their German citizenship.

Hess's friend Karl Haushofer and his family were subject to these laws, as Haushofer had married a half-Jewish woman, so Hess issued documents exempting them from this legislation.

Hess did not build a power base or develop a coterie of followers. He lived in a modest house in Munich.

For example, he said in a speech that "Today's League of Nations is really only a farce which functions primarily as the basis for the Jews to reach their own aims.

You need only to note how many Jews sit in the League. On the same day, Hess and Heinrich Himmler ordered that a racial registry be established in these areas and stated that Poles and Jews living in these areas were not to be treated as equals of Germans.

A separate legal code for Poles and Jews in the annexed areas was created, imposing draconian punishments. Hess argued that a separate legal code was necessary because "the Pole is less susceptible to the infliction of ordinary punishment".

Hess's antisemitism markedly increased after the war started as he was convinced that the war had been caused by the Jews.

This became a major theme of his wartime speeches. In a speech given on 20 April to mark Hitler's 51st birthday, Hess accused the "Jews and their fellow travelers" for Germany's capitulation in November , which he called the most calamitous event in world history.

In the same speech, Hess, referring to the Black Horror on the Rhine story, stated the defeat of was followed up by an occupation of the Rhineland by "niggers", which he again blamed on the Jews.

Hess concluded his speech by saying that with Hitler in charge, there was no possibility of the current war ending similarly.

Hess was obsessed with his health to the point of hypochondria , consulting many doctors and other practitioners for what he described to his captors in Britain as a long list of ailments involving the kidneys, colon, gall bladder, bowels and heart.

Hess was a vegetarian, and he did not smoke or drink. He brought his own food to the Berghof , claiming it was biologically dynamic , but Hitler did not approve of this practice, so he discontinued taking meals with the Führer.

Hess was interested in music, enjoyed reading and loved to spend time hiking and climbing in the mountains with Ilse. He and his friend Albrecht Haushofer shared an interest in astrology , and Hess also was keen on clairvoyance and the occult.

He won an air race in , flying a BFW M. He placed sixth of 29 participants in a similar race held the following year.

Hess convinced him to reduce the ban to one year. As the war progressed, Hitler's attention became focused on foreign affairs and the conduct of the war.

Hess, who was not directly engaged in the war, became increasingly sidelined from the affairs of the nation and from Hitler's attention; Bormann had successfully supplanted Hess in many of his duties and taken Hess's position at Hitler's side.

Also concerned that Germany would face a war on two fronts as plans progressed for Operation Barbarossa , the invasion of the Soviet Union scheduled to take place in , Hess decided to attempt to bring Britain to the negotiating table by travelling there himself to seek meetings with the British government.

On 31 August , Hess spent the better part of the day at Karl Haushofer's house in Munich, where the two Haushofers explained to him that if only the "warmonger" Churchill was removed, then Britain would make peace.

The Haushofers told Hess that they believed that King George VI was opposed to Churchill and would dismiss him and send him to Canada at the first opportunity.

The Haushofers spoke of their belief that it was possible to make contact with the king via either General Ian Hamilton or Douglas Douglas-Hamilton.

Hess chose Hamilton in the mistaken belief that he was one of the leaders of a party opposed to war with Germany, and because Hamilton was a friend of Haushofer.

On Hess's instructions, Haushofer wrote to Hamilton in September , but the letter was intercepted by MI5 and Hamilton did not see it until March A letter Hess wrote to his wife dated 4 November shows that in spite of not receiving a reply from Hamilton, he intended to proceed with his plan.

He began training on the Messerschmitt Bf , a two-seater twin-engine aircraft, in October under instructor Wilhelm Stör , the chief test pilot at Messerschmitt.

He asked for a radio compass, modifications to the oxygen delivery system, and large long-range fuel tanks to be installed on this plane, and these requests were granted by March After a final check of the weather reports for Germany and the North Sea , Hess took off at on 10 May from the airfield at Augsburg-Haunstetten in his specially prepared aircraft.

Initially setting a course towards Bonn , Hess used landmarks on the ground to orient himself and make minor course corrections.

When he reached the coast near the Frisian Islands , he turned and flew in an easterly direction for twenty minutes to stay out of range of British radar.

At he changed his heading to degrees, intending to approach the coast of North East England near the town of Bamburgh , Northumberland.

As it was not yet sunset when he initially approached the coast, Hess backtracked, zigzagging back and forth for 40 minutes until it grew dark.

Around this time his auxiliary fuel tanks were exhausted, so he released them into the sea. Soon he had been detected by several other stations, and the aircraft was designated as "Raid 42".

Two Spitfires of No. Tracked by additional ROC posts, Hess continued his flight into Scotland at high speed and low altitude, but was unable to spot his destination, Dungavel House , so he headed for the west coast to orient himself and then turned back inland.

At a Boulton Paul Defiant sent from No. He injured his foot, either while exiting the aircraft or when he hit the ground.

Before his departure from Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch , a letter addressed to Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace negotiations with the British.

Hitler worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British.

Hitler contacted Mussolini specifically to reassure him otherwise. Subsequent German newspaper reports described Hess as "deluded, deranged", indicating that his mental health had been affected by injuries sustained during World War I.

Some members of the government, including Göring and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels , believed this only made matters worse, because if Hess truly were mentally ill, he should not have been holding an important government position.

Hitler stripped Hess of all of his party and state offices, and secretly ordered him shot on sight if he ever returned to Germany.

The campaign was part of a propaganda effort by Goebbels and others to denigrate Hess and to make scapegoats of occult practitioners. American journalist Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker , who had met both Hitler and Hess, speculated that Hitler had sent Hess to deliver a message informing Winston Churchill of the forthcoming invasion of the Soviet Union, and offering a negotiated peace or even an anti-Bolshevik partnership.

Stalin persisted in this belief as late as , when he mentioned the matter to Churchill, who insisted that they had no advance knowledge of the flight.

After the war, Albert Speer discussed the rationale for the flight with Hess, who told him that "the idea had been inspired in him in a dream by supernatural forces.

We will guarantee England her empire; in return she will give us a free hand in Europe. Even though I did not get permission from the Führer to fly I knew that what I had to say would have had his approval.

Hitler had great respect for the English people Hess landed at Floors Farm, Eaglesham , south of Glasgow, where he was discovered still struggling with his parachute by local ploughman David McLean.

McLean helped Hess to his nearby cottage and contacted the local Home Guard unit, who escorted the captive to their headquarters in Busby, East Renfrewshire.

He was next taken to the police station at Giffnock , arriving after midnight; he was searched and his possessions confiscated.

Hess repeatedly requested to meet with the Duke of Hamilton during questioning undertaken with the aid of an interpreter by Major Graham Donald, the area commandant of Royal Observer Corps.

After the interview Hess was taken under guard to Maryhill Barracks in Glasgow , where his injuries were treated. By this time some of his captors suspected Hess's true identity, though he continued to insist his name was Horn.

Hamilton had been on duty as wing commander at RAF Turnhouse near Edinburgh when Hess had arrived, and his station had been one of those that had tracked the progress of the flight.

He arrived at Maryhill Barracks the next morning, and after examining Hess's effects, he met alone with the prisoner. Hess immediately admitted his true identity and outlined the reason for his flight.

Hamilton told Hess that he hoped to continue the conversation with the aid of an interpreter; Hess could speak English well, but was having trouble understanding Hamilton.

After the meeting, Hamilton examined the remains of the Messerschmitt in the company of an intelligence officer, then returned to Turnhouse, where he made arrangements through the Foreign Office to meet Churchill, who was at Ditchley for the weekend.

They had some preliminary talks that night, and Hamilton accompanied Churchill back to London the next day, where they both met with members of the War Cabinet.

Churchill sent Hamilton with foreign affairs expert Ivone Kirkpatrick , who had met Hess previously, to positively identify the prisoner, who had been moved to Buchanan Castle overnight.

Kirkpatrick held two more meetings with Hess over the course of the next few days, while Hamilton returned to his duties. In addition to being disappointed at the apparent failure of his mission, Hess began claiming that his medical treatment was inadequate and that there was a plot afoot to poison him.

Hess's flight, but not his destination or fate, was first announced by Munich Radio in Germany on the evening of 12 May.

On 13 May Hitler sent Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to give the news in person to Mussolini, and the British press was permitted to release full information about events that same day.

On 14 May Ilse Hess finally learned that her husband had survived the trip when news of his fate was broadcast on German radio.

Two sections of the fuselage of the aircraft were initially hidden by David McLean and later retrieved.

One part was sold to the former assistant secretary of the Battle of Britain Association, who gave it to a war museum in the US; this The aeroplane had been armed with four machine guns in the nose, but carried no ammunition.

From Buchanan Castle, Hess was transferred briefly to the Tower of London and then to Mytchett Place in Surrey , a fortified mansion, designated "Camp Z", where he stayed for the next 13 months.

Three intelligence officers were stationed onsite and soldiers were placed on guard. By early June, Hess was allowed to write to his family.

He also prepared a letter to the Duke of Hamilton, but it was never delivered, and his repeated requests for further meetings were turned down.

Dicks and Dr John Rawlings Rees , psychiatrists who treated Hess during this period, noted that while he was not insane, he was mentally unstable, with tendencies toward hypochondria and paranoia.

Lord Simon noted that the prisoner's mental state was not good; Hess claimed he was being poisoned and was being prevented from sleeping. While in Scotland, Hess claimed to have discovered a "secret force" controlling the minds of Churchill and other British leaders, filling them with an irrational hatred of Germany.

Hess claimed the force acted on Hitler's mind as well, causing him to make poor military decisions. He said that Jews had psychic powers that allowed them to control the minds of others, including Himmler, and that the Holocaust was part of a Jewish plot to defame Germany.

In the early morning hours of 16 June , Hess rushed his guards and attempted suicide by jumping over the railing of the staircase at Mytchett Place.

He fell onto the stone floor below, fracturing the femur of his left leg. The injury required that the leg be kept in traction for 12 weeks, with a further six weeks bed rest before he was permitted to walk with crutches.

Captain Munro Johnson of the Royal Army Medical Corps , who assessed Hess, noted that another suicide attempt was likely to occur in the near future.

Hess began around this time to complain of amnesia. This symptom and some of his increasingly erratic behaviour may have in part been a ruse, because if he were declared mentally ill, he could be repatriated under the terms of the Geneva Conventions.

Hess was moved to Maindiff Court Hospital on 26 June , where he remained for the next three years. The facility was chosen for its added security and the need for fewer guards.

Hess was allowed walks on the grounds and car trips into the surrounding countryside. He had access to newspapers and other reading materials; he wrote letters and journals.

His mental health remained under the care of Dr Rees. Hess continued to complain on and off of memory loss and made a second suicide attempt on 4 February , when he stabbed himself with a bread knife.

The wound was not serious, requiring two stitches. Despondent that Germany was losing the war, he took no food for the next week, only resuming eating when he was threatened with being force-fed.

Germany surrendered unconditionally on 8 May Hess, facing charges as a war criminal, was ordered to appear before the International Military Tribunal and was transported to Nuremberg on 10 October The Allies of World War II held a series of military tribunals and trials, beginning with a trial of the major war criminals from November to October Hess was tried with this first group of 23 defendants, all of whom were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity , in violation of international laws governing warfare.

On his arrival in Nuremberg, Hess was reluctant to give up some of his possessions, including samples of food he said had been poisoned by the British; he proposed to use these for his defence during the trial.

The commandant of the facility, Colonel Burton C. Andrus of the United States Army, advised him that he would be allowed no special treatment; the samples were sealed and confiscated.

As one defendant, Robert Ley , had managed to hang himself in his cell on 24 October, the remaining prisoners were monitored around the clock.

Almost immediately after his arrival, Hess began exhibiting amnesia, which may have been feigned in the hope of avoiding the death sentence.

The chief psychiatrist at Nuremberg, Douglas Kelley of the US Military, gave the opinion that the defendant suffered from "a true psychoneurosis, primarily of the hysterical type, engrafted on a basic paranoid and schizoid personality, with amnesia, partly genuine and partly feigned", but found him fit to stand trial.

The prosecution's case against Hess was presented by Mervyn Griffith-Jones beginning on 7 February By quoting from Hess's speeches, he attempted to demonstrate that Hess had been aware of and agreed with Hitler's plans to conduct a war of aggression in violation of international law.

He declared that as Hess had signed important governmental decrees, including the decree requiring mandatory military service, the Nuremberg racial laws, and a decree incorporating the conquered Polish territories into the Reich, he must share responsibility for the acts of the regime.

He pointed out that the timing of Hess's trip to Scotland, only six weeks before the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, could only be viewed as an attempt by Hess to keep the British out of the war.

Hess resumed showing symptoms of amnesia at the end of February, partway through the prosecution's case. He noted that while Hess accepted responsibility for the many decrees he had signed, he said these matters were part of the internal workings of a sovereign state and thus outside the purview of a war crimes trial.

When Griffith-Jones presented questions about the organisation's spying in several countries, Bohle testified that any warlike activities such as espionage had been done without his permission or knowledge.

Seidl presented a summation of the defence's case on 25 July, in which he attempted to refute the charge of conspiracy by pointing out that Hitler alone had made all the important decisions.

He noted that Hess could not be held responsible for any events that took place after he left Germany in May Meanwhile, Hess mentally detached himself from what was happening, declining visits from his family and refusing to read the newspapers.

The court deliberated for nearly two months before passing judgement on 30 September, with the defendants being individually sentenced on 1 October.

Hess was found guilty on two counts: crimes against peace planning and preparing a war of aggression , and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes.

He was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He was given a life sentence, one of seven Nazis to receive prison sentences at the trial.

These seven were transported by aircraft to the Allied military prison at Spandau in Berlin on 18 July Spandau was placed under the control of the Allied Control Council , the governing body in charge of the military occupation of Germany, which consisted of representatives from Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

Each country supplied prison guards for a month at a time on a rotating basis. After the inmates were given medical examinations—Hess refused his body search, and had to be held down [] —they were provided with prison garb and assigned the numbers by which they were addressed throughout their stay.

Hess was Number 7. The prison had a small library and inmates were allowed to file special requests for additional reading material. Writing materials were limited; each inmate was allowed four pieces of paper per month for letters.

They were not allowed to speak to one another without permission and were expected to work in the facility, helping with cleaning and gardening chores.

Some of the rules became more relaxed as time went on. Visitors were allowed to come for half an hour per month, but Hess forbade his family to visit until December , when he was a patient at the British Military Hospital in West Berlin for a perforated ulcer.

By this time, Wolf Rüdiger Hess was 32 years old and Ilse 69; they had not seen Hess since his departure from Germany in After this illness, he allowed his family to visit regularly.

His daughter-in-law Andrea, who often brought photos and films of his grandchildren, became a particularly welcome visitor. He cried out in the night, claiming he had stomach pains.

He continued to suspect that his food was being poisoned and complained of amnesia. Other than his stays in hospital, Hess spent the rest of his life in Spandau Prison.

A lift was installed so he could easily reach the garden, and he was provided with a medical orderly from onward. Hess's lawyer Alfred Seidl launched numerous appeals for his release, beginning as early as These were denied, mainly because the Soviets repeatedly vetoed the proposal.

Spandau was located in West Berlin, and its existence gave the Soviets a foothold in that sector of the city. Additionally, Soviet officials believed Hess must have known in that an attack on their country was imminent.

By , , people had signed the petition. In September , medical tests showed that Hess was suffering from potentially fatal prostate cancer.

Hess's appeal to neo-Nazi groups in West Germany further increased the Soviet unwillingness to consider his release. Hess continued to be an unapologetic National Socialist and anti-Semite; this was usually ignored by those championing his release, who portrayed him as a harmless old man.

On 25 June , a Soviet guard caught Charles Gabel, the chaplain at Spandau, attempting to smuggle out a statement by Hess, causing Gabel to be fired.

Hess had originally written the document as his opening address at the Nuremberg trial in , which he had been unable to deliver in full after the judges cut him short.

Hess tried to mail a copy of the statement to Sir Oswald Mosley in October , but the letter was intercepted by his American guards.

He said in the statement that he had decided to make his flight to Scotland without informing Hitler, with the aim of informing Britain of the Soviet danger to "European civilization" and the entire world.

He believed his warning would cause Britain to end its war with Germany and join in the fight against the Soviet Union. Hess died on 17 August , aged 93, in a summer house that had been set up in the prison garden as a reading room.

He took an extension cord from one of the lamps, strung it over a window latch, and hanged himself.

2 comments

  1. Ich denke, dass Sie nicht recht sind. Es ich kann beweisen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden umgehen.

  2. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach lassen Sie den Fehler zu. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *